Butt dial and booty call are basically the same words but they mean very different things.
Linguistics people! I am doing research on Multiple Modal constructions and would greatly appreciate responses to this survey. It only takes 5ish minutes and it is 99% painless :) Many thanks!
christmas is so much worse as you get older it’s like “what do you want this year?” “a sense of purpose”
"a career" "financial security" "a sex life" "tuition for grad school" "alcohol" "a nap" "socks would be nice"
It’s amazing how much gratitude our hearts can hold - especially when we have so much for which to be thankful.
We want to thank you all for all you do to help us conquer the world one random act of kindness at a time. You’re our inspiration each and every day. Never forget it.
Thank you for being you. Have an amazing day.
A new paper adds to the perennial free will debate, by casting doubt on the famous Libet experiment.
Back in 1983, neuroscientists led by Benjamin Libet found that, about two seconds before someone presses a button ‘of their own free will’, a negative electrical potential – dubbed the Readiness Potential (RP) – began to build up in the cortex. Their EEG study showed that the brain seemed to have ‘decided’ before the conscious mind did – bad news for free will.
Since then, the meaning of the RP has been extensively debated. But the new study by Han-Gue Jo and colleagues of Freiburg makes a strong case that the “RP” is not really a ‘thing’ at all.
They say that, in the two seconds before a button press, you see both negative and positive changes, in roughly equal numbers. There are slightly more negative ones, so on average, there is a small negative “RP”, but only on average.
Almost half the button presses were not preceded by a negative potential, yet the button still got pressed – which means that the negative “RP” can’t directly reflect the decision to press.
Jo et al also ran a comparison condition, where participants had to listen to a beep, instead of pressing a button. So there was no ‘free choice’ to make, yet there were potential shifts in the two seconds before the beeps, just as there were before button presses. The difference was that in the beep task, there were equal numbers of positive and negative potentials, and they cancelled out to zero on average.
Jo et al say that these shifts are more or less random, spontaneous background changesin the brain – nothing to do with ‘readiness’ or decisions.
But why then are negative potentials more common just before movements? They suggest that
the negative deflections facilitate a movement in the near future, but they are not a neural sign of decision processes to move.
In other words, they don’t reflect a choice being made, rather they contribute to making a choice. Random brain changes influencing our choices… is that good news for free will?
Anyway, Jo et al did find a more substantial negative RP preceding button presses – albeit only about half a second beforehand. This occurred whether or not the ongoing slow wave was positive or negative:
Could this -0.5 second ‘late RP’ be the real marker of the decision to move? If so, it would still precede the moment of the conscious decision, which on average occurred at -0.25 seconds before the button got pushed.
Han‑Gue Jo, Thilo Hinterberger, Marc Wittmann, Tilmann Lhündrup Borghardt, & Stefan Schmidt (2013). Spontaneous EEG fluctuations determine the readiness potential: is preconscious brain activation a preparation process to move? Exp Brain Res DOI: 10.1007/s00221-013-3713-z
STOLEN INSTRUMENTS Early in the morning of November 23, five of our instruments were stolen from our van parked in Brooklyn, NY. If you have any information about the whereabouts of any of these items - or you see them for sale anywhere - please contact Sasha Brown at 646-867-3272 / firstname.lastname@example.org or Josh Myers&
Dearest Music Supporter,
Someone in Brooklyn, NY had the audacity to lift $12,000 worth of gear. Some of the stolen property includes a Cannonball Baritone Saxophone and a 1975 Fender Precision Bass. A full list of the items and their descriptions can be found in the link above. If you see any of them being sold online, in a pawn shop, etc, please contact either Sasha (email@example.com) or Josh (firstname.lastname@example.org).
I can’t stop listening to Delta Rae’s “I Will Never Die" and it’s kinda a problem.
But it’s a problem I have no desire to fix so…
So you know what I don’t get? Why people repeat words. (x)
Grammar time: it’s called “contrastive reduplication,” and it’s a form of intensification that is relatively common. Finnish does a very similar thing, and others use near-reduplication (rhyme-based) to intensify, like Hungarian (pici ‘tiny’, ici-pici ‘very tiny’).
Even the typologically-distant group of Bantu languages utilize reduplication in a strikingly similar fashion with nouns: Kinande oku-gulu ‘leg’, oku-gulu-gulu ‘a REAL leg’ (Downing 2001, includes more with verbal reduplication as well).
I suppose the difficult aspect of English reduplication is not through this particular type, but the fact that it utilizes many other types of reduplication: baby talk (choo-choo, no-no), rhyming (teeny-weeny, super-duper), and the ever-famous “shm” reduplication: fancy-schmancy (a way of denying the claim that something is fancy).
screams my professor was trying to find an example of reduplication so the next class he came back and said “I FOUND REDUPLICATION IN ENGLISH” and then he said “Milk milk” and everyone was just “what?” and he said “you know when you go to a coffee shop and they ask if you want soy milk and you say ‘no i want milk milk’” and everyone just had this collective sigh of understanding.
you should listen to this song rigHT now it’s at least five hellas at LEAST like very least